Modern Money Mechanics is a workbook originally published by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. (First publication in June 1961; last updated June 1992; now out of print.) This little pamphlet does a fantastic job of describing exactly how our money system works in the U.S. Most people have no clue how this works, but the effect of monetary policy on our everyday lives is a hot issue right now and for those who want to know, this is a good resource. (For a link to the PDF version of the workbook, click here.)
Particularly fascinating is the expansion and contraction of the monetary supply made possible by the fractional banking reserve system. You could end up with $90,000 worth of assets and liabilities based on $10,000 in deposits.